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Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a serious global health problem. They can be caused by various incidents, including falls, car accidents, and sports injuries. TBIs can range in severity from mild to life-threatening, and the effects can be long-lasting.

  1. Concussions

Concussions are the most common type of TBI and usually occur when the head is hit by an object or violently shaken. Concussions can cause various symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, and confusion. Most concussions are mild and resolve on their own within a few days or weeks. However, some people may experience long-term effects, such as problems with memory and concentration.

  1. Skull Fractures

A skull fracture is a break in one of the bones of the skull. It can be caused by a direct blow to the head or an object penetrating the skull and can range from a hairline crack to a complete break in the bone. A skull fracture can cause bleeding and swelling inside the skull and brain bruising. A skull fracture may be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention in more severe cases.

  1. Contusions

A contusion is a bruise on the brain. An object hits the head, causing the brain to bleed or swell. They can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the size and location of the injury. People with severe contusions may need surgery to remove the damaged tissue. If you or someone you love has suffered a traumatic brain injury, it is essential to seek medical attention. Resource for traumatic brain injury victims helps TBI victims and their families, including support groups, therapy programs, and medical treatments.

  1. Diffuse Axonal Injury

Diffuse axonal injury is a type of TBI that occurs when nerve cells in the brain are damaged or destroyed. That happens due to abrupt movements of the head or forceful shaking, which causes nerve fibers in the brain to stretch and tear. Symptoms of diffuse axonal injury include confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, headache, nausea/vomiting, and loss of coordination. Depending on the severity of the injury, diffuse axonal injury can sometimes lead to permanent disabilities or death.

  1. Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of TBI that occurs when there is bleeding in the space between the brain and the membranes that cover it. This type of injury is usually caused by a blow to the head, which causes blood vessels to rupture and bleed. Symptoms of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage include headache, nausea/vomiting, loss of consciousness, seizures, and stiffness in the neck. If you or someone you know has suffered a TBI, it is essential to seek medical attention. There are many resources for TBI victims available to help them and their families cope with the effects of the injury.

  1. Tension Pneumocephalus

Tension pneumocephalus is a rare type of TBI that occurs when air is trapped in the brain due to skull fractures or head injuries. That can cause pressure inside the skull and brain swelling, resulting in serious complications such as seizures and respiratory failure.


If you or someone you know has suffered a traumatic brain injury, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately. The severity of the injury will dictate the appropriate course of treatment, which may range from conservative management to surgery. If you have any questions or concerns, please don’t hesitate to speak with your doctor.